Nerovnosť v príjme a zdraví v krajinách EÚ

  • Silvia Šipikalová Katedra sociálneho rozvoja a práce Národohospodárska fakulta Ekonomická univerzita v Bratislave

Abstrakt

Inequalities are reflected in all areas of socio-economic life. They are visible for example in areas such as employment and working conditions, education, housing but also health. Health of the population is affected by several determinants, which include income. In this paper, we focus on income inequality and health and examine the relationship between income and health. The purpose of this paper is to take measure the eligibility provided that the company with inequitable income distribution has worse health outcomes.

We use the methods of observation and description of socio-economic phenomena and processes using deduction to formulate some conclusions. We use statistical software IBM Statistics and we examine the relationship between defined variables - the Gini coefficient and life expectancy. Basic general research methods, that we use to fulfill the intention of article, are: comparison, analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, and other empirical methods.

The aim of this paper is to consider the postulate that the European Union countries with higher income inequalities have poorer health outcomes.

Among several experts there is no consensus on the relationship between income and health. Some state that income inequality makes a difference in health, others note that income inequality itself can not affect the health of inhabitants. We believe that there is the effect of income inequality on health, but not a decisive factor in health inequalities. On the other hand, health may affect the economic (income) inequality by means of the impact on the labor market and education. When examining the relationship between income and health, we do not forget other factors, including macro factors such as macro-economic development and micro factors such as the individual's behavior towards his health and his individual income.

Whether or not there is a link between income inequality and health, it requires inequalities solution across a range of economic and social fields: from distribution through the tax and social protection systems to income and property policies, a stronger public services and the strengthening of equal opportunities.

Biografie autora

Silvia Šipikalová, Katedra sociálneho rozvoja a práce Národohospodárska fakulta Ekonomická univerzita v Bratislave
Katedra sociálneho rozvoja a práce, docent

Reference

ADLER, N. E., BOYCE, T., CHESNEY, M. A., et al. Socioeconomic status and health: the challenge of the gradient. In American Psychologist, 1994, roč. 49, č. 1, s. 15–24. ISSN 0003-066X.

BECKFIELD, J. Does Income Inequality Harm Health? New Cross-National Evidence. In Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 2004, roč. 45 (September), s. 231–248. ISSN 0022-1465.

DEATON, A. Health, Inequality and Economic Development. In Journal of Economic Literature, 2003, roč. 41, č. 1, s. 113-158. ISSN 0022-0515.

EUROSTAT, [cit. 2014-08-18]. Dostupné na WWW: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/search_database.

CHARLESWORTH, S. J., GILFILLAN, P., Wilkinson, R. Living Inferiority. In British Medical Bulletin, 2004, roč. 69, č. 1, s. 49-60. ISSN 0007-1420.

JUDGE, K. – PATERSON, I. Poverty, Income Inequality and Health. Treasury working paper, 01/29. 2001. [cit. 2014-08-27]. Dostupné na WWW: http://www.treasury.govt.nz/publications/research-policy/wp/2001.

LEIGH, A., JENCKS, CH., SMEEDING, T. M. Health and Economic Inequality. 2009. [cit. 2014-09-11]. Dostupné na WWW: http://andrewleigh.org/pdf/HealthInequalityOUP.pdf.

LYNCH, J. W., SMITH G., D., KAPLAN, G., A., HOUSE, S., J. Income Inequality and Mortality: Importance to Health of Individual Income, Psychosocial Environment, or Material Conditions. In British Medical Journal, 2000, roč. 320 (7243), s. 1200–1204.

LYNCH et al. Is income inequality a determinant of population health? Part 1. A systematic review. 2004. [cit. 2014-09-02]. Dostupné na WWW: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2690209/.

MARMOT, M. Status Syndrome: how your social standing directly affects your health and life expectancy. Bloomsbury, London, 2004. 288 s. ISBN 0747570493.

MARMOT, M. – FRIEL, S. – Bell R, et al. Closing the gap in a generation: health ekvity through action on the social determinants of health. Final Report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2008.

MARMOT, M. Fair Society, Healthy Lives [The Marmot Review]. 2010. [cit. 2014-09-02]. Dostupné na WWW: http://www.instituteofhealthequity.org/projects/fair-society-healthy-lives-the-marmot-review.

NOVÁKOVÁ, M. Zdravie a zdravotná starostlivosť v socioekonomických súvislo- stiach. Bratislava, Vyd. EKONÓM, 2014. 90 s. ISBN 978-80-25-3850-3.

ROWLINGSON, K. Does Income Inequality cause health and social problems? York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2011. 51 s. ISBN 978-1-85935-847-4.

Rural poverty and health systems in the WHO European Region. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2010, 40 s. ISBN 978 92 890 0219.

SINGH-MANOUX, A., ADLER, N. E., MARMOT, M. G. Subjective social status: its determinants and its association with ill-health in the Whitehall II study. In Social Science & Medicine, 2003, roč. 56, č. 6, s. 1321-1333. ISSN 0277-9536.

SUBRAMANIAN, S. V., KAWACHI, I. 2004. Income Inequality and Health: What Have We Learned So Far? In Epidemiologic Reviews, 2004, roč. 26, s. 78-91. ISSN 0193-936X.

WHO, [cit. 2014-09-12]. Dostupné na WWW: http://www.who.int/gho/mortality_burden_disease/life_tables/situation_trends/en/

WILKINSON, R. G. Income, inequality and social cohesion. In American Journal of Public Health, 1997, roč. 87, č. 9, s. 1504-1506. ISSN 0090-0036.

WILKINSON, R. G., PICKETT, K. E. The spirit level: why more equal societies almost always do better. London: Penguin, 2009. 352 s. ISBN 1-84614-039-0.

Publikováno
2015-01-07
Sekce
Články